Paul refers to some 38 persons in Rom 16:1-16 and 21-24 (women, slaves, sexual minorities)

    Key:    */*? = common name for slaves and liberated slaves (mainly poor);
               (J ) = Jew

    16:1-2   Phoebe, bearer of the letter from Paul in Corinth, deacon/minister (masculine
    form in Greek); benefactor of Paul and others.

    16:3-16  Greets 28+ persons in some five house churches: 1-5a; v. 10; v. 11; v. 14; v.

    Only three married couples (six persons):

    PRISCA (J) and AQUILA (J),(vv. 3-5a); see 2 Tim 4:19; Acts 18:26; cf 1 Cor. 16:9; Acts
    Andronicus*? (J) and  Junia (J)*, both  “apostles” (v. 7a)
    Philologus*? and Julia* (v. 15a)

    Six SINGLE WOMEN, etc., five of the six commended for their work for the church:

    Mary*? (J?) (v. 6a), worker for the church
    Tryphaena* + Triphosa* (v. 12a, sisters), work for the church
    Persis*  (v. 12b), “the beloved...who worked much”
    The mother*? de RUFUS  (v. 13b), “like a mother to me” (hospitality)
    The sister*? of Nereus  (v. 15b)

    16+ SINGLE MALES: only one is designated a worker; Paul calls three his “beloved”:

    Epaenetus*?  (v. 5), “my beloved”
    Ampliatus*  (v. 8), “my beloved”
    URBANUS   (v. 9a), “our fellow-worker in Christ”
    Stachys*? (v. 9b), “my beloved”
    Apelles*?   (v. 10)
    The slaves* of Aristobulus’ house [died 48-49 AD]  (v. 10b)
    Herodion* (J),  (v. 11)
    The slaves* of  Narcissus [died 55-57 AD] (v. 11)
    RUFUS  (v. 13); cf. Mark 15:21
    Asyncritus*?, Phlegon*?, Hermes*, Patrobas*?, Hermas*? + brothers (v. 14)           
    Nereus*  (v. 15)
    Olympas*? (v. 15)

    16:21-24  Greetings from eight male companions living with Paul in Gaius’ house
    (total nine):

    Timothy (J) (v. 21a)                               Lucius (J), Jason (J) and Sosipater (J)  (v. 21b) Tertius
    (v. 22), Paul’s secretary              Gaius   (v. 23a), the host
    Erastus, the city treasurer (v. 23b)          Quartus  (v. 23b)

Summary.  Romans 16 refers to 38 persons  (including Phoebe and Paul):

    32 apparently unmarried  (sexual minorities: single persons, divorced, widows, etc.)

    6 married persons  (three couples)                   

    10 women, eight of them leaders: one deacon (Phoebe); Prisca; one apostle (Junia); five

    12-26 slaves or liberated slaves  (mainly poor); PRISCA  and AQUILA clearly are not slave
    names (details: Peter Lampe, 2003:153-183).  Leon Morris (1988:535-36) and Craig Keener  
    (1993:448) identify URBANUS and RUFUS as common slave names, pace Lampe.

    11 Jews: six of those 28 greeted in Rome were Jews; five (Paul + four) of the nine in Corinth.

A Gay Apostle’s Queer Epistle for a Peculiar People: Romans 1:24-27 in its Context
Rev. Dr. Tom Hanks

Appendix: Romans 16 -  
Poor slaves, women leaders, and sexual minorities
in five humble house churches in Rome

Note:  The pound sign (#) indicates that more detail or related treatment
of the marked subject is discuessed in other place(s) in this docuemnt.
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